Bibiliography and Abstracts of RIAS Studies through 2012
Following are abstracts of RIAS studies, listed in alphabetical order by first author. Just click on a letter below to view the abstracts by the author's last name.
Monographs and doctoral theses have their own page.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Monographs & Theses
Hall JA, Irish JT, Roter DL, Ehrlich CM, Miller LH. Gender in medical encounters: an analysis of physician and patient communication in a primary care setting. Health Psychol 1994 Sep;13(5):384-92.
(Primary Care, Gender and Patient Satisfaction, United States)
The relation of physician and patient gender to verbal and nonverbal communication was examined in 100 routine medical visits. Female physicians conducted longer visits, made more positive statements, made more partnership statements, asked more questions, made more back-channel responses, and smiled and nodded more. Patients made more partnership statements and gave more medical information to female physicians. The combinations of female physician-female patient and female physician-male patient received special attention in planned contrasts. These combinations showed distinctive patterns of physician and patient behavior, especially in nonverbal communication. We discuss the relation of the results to gender differences in nonclinical settings, role strains in medical visits, and current trends in medical education.
Hall JA, Irish JT, Roter DL, Ehrlich CM, Miller LH. Satisfaction, gender, and communication in medical visits. Med Care 1994 Dec;32(12):1216-31.
(Primary Care, Gender and Patient Satisfaction, United States)
The authors conducted two studies of routine medical visits, investigating the relation of physician gender, patient gender, and physician age to patient satisfaction, and the correlations between communication behaviors and satisfaction separately for different combinations of patient and physician gender. Study 1 was based on videotaped visits to a hospital-based internal medicine practice (n = 97 visits). Study 2 was based on audiotaped visits to 11 different community and hospital-based practices in the United States and Canada (n = 524 visits). In both studies, patients examined by younger physicians, especially younger female physicians, reported lower ratings of satisfaction. These findings were true for male and female patients; however, in both studies, the lowest satisfaction in absolute terms was among male patients examined by younger female physicians. The effects were not explained by patient and physician background characteristics or by measured communication during the visit. Correlations between verbal and nonverbal communication and satisfaction for different combinations of physician and patient gender suggested that gender-related values and expectations influence patients' reactions to physicians' behavior. There also was evidence that patient satisfaction is reflected in the patient's affective behavior during the visit.
Hall JA, Milburn MA, Roter DL, Daltroy LH. Why are sicker patients less satisfied with their care? Test of two explanatory models. Health Psychol 1998 Jan;17(1):70-5.
(Primary Care, United States)
Two explanations were tested for why patients who are less healthy tend to be less satisfied with their medical care than healthier patients. The explanations were (a) that poor health produces dissatisfaction directly and (b) that poor health produces dissatisfaction through the mediating effect of physicians' behavior. Two studies are presented that measured patients' health status, patients' satisfaction with care, and their physicians' communication as recorded on audiotape. In Study 1, 114 patients had first visits with rheumatologists; in Study 2, 649 patients had continuing-care visits with physicians in internal and family medicine. Causal modeling revealed that the first study supported the direct explanation. The second study also supported the direct explanation, as well as the mediation explanation with respect to the physician's use of social conversation.
Hall JA, Roter DL. Physicians' knowledge and self-reported compliance promotion as predictors of performance with simulated lung disease patients. Evaluation and The Health Professions 1988 Sept;11(2):306-3l7.
(Primary Care, Communication Skills Training, United States)
Scores on a test of knowledge of chronic lung disease and self-reports of actions to enhance compliance in chronic-disease patients were obtained from 42 primary-care pysicians. Two years later each physician was audiotaped during encounters with two simulated lung disease patients. Transcripts were used to score physician performance and to analyze communication. Audiotapes of the encounters were also played to role-playing subjects (N=252) to ascertain likely patient outcomes. More knowledgeable physicians displyed more clinical expertise, gave more patient education, engaged in less social-emotional talk, and induced more satisfaction and recall by role-playing subjects. Physicians who said they worked harder to achieve compliance were shown to be more likely to ask more appropriate open-ended questions; ask more questions; offer less patient education; give more directions and instructions; and make more utterances.
Hall JA, Roter DL. Patient gender and communication with physicians: results of a community-based study. Womens Health 1995 Spring;1(1):77-95
(Primary Care, Gender, United States)
An observational study of 648 routine medical visits with 69 physicians examined patient gender in relation to patient and physician communication, patient preference for the physician's communication style, patient satisfaction, and the physician's awareness of the patient's satisfaction. Data consisted of audiotapes as well as patient and physician questionnaires. Women appeared to be more actively engaged in the talk of medical visits--they sent and received more emotionally charged talk and were judged by independent raters as more anxious and interested both globally and in terms of voice quality than men. Consistent with the more emotional talk, women reported preferring a more "feeling-oriented" physician than male patients did. Mean levels of satisfaction with communication did not differ by gender, and communication predictors of satisfaction were similar for male and female patients, although they were stronger for male patients. Physicians were significantly less aware of some aspects of female patients' satisfaction compared to male patients' satisfaction. In light of the weaker correlations between patients' communication and their satisfaction for women, we suggest that women provided fewer obvious cues to their satisfaction. Training in communication skills may increase open discussion about feelings and emotions and may also produce greater physician sensitivity to patients' satisfaction, particularly with female patients.
Hall JA, Roter DL, Katz NR. Task versus socioemotional behaviors in physicians. Med Care. 1987 May;25(5):399-412.
(Primary Care, United States)
This paper investigates associations among physicians' task-oriented and socioemotional behaviors during the medical encounter. The study is an analogue, using as source data the audiotapes and transcripts of two standardized patient cases presented by trained patient simulators to 43 primary care practitioners. Transcripts were scored for physician proficiency and were content-analyzed to assess the process of communication and information content. Physicians' speech errors were counted, and vocal affect ratings were made of filtered audiotape excerpts. Physician communications reflected by these measures were classified as task-oriented or socioemotional. Findings indicated: 1) Most aspects of physician style were reliable across visits. 2) Physicians adopted either a patient-oriented or a physician-oriented approach to task performance, as characterized by giving information and counseling versus giving directions and asking questions, respectively. 3) Verbal and nonverbal socioemotional measures were not related. 4) Physicians tended to adopt either a style characterized by information-giving and proficiency or a social orientation with patients. 5) Physicians who were more medically informative had more interested and anxious voices compared with the less informative physicians. Thus, although the more medically informative physicians spent less time making socioemotional utterances, they had a voice quality that may compensate for that neglect.
Hall JA, Roter DL, Milburn MA, Daltroy LH. Patients' health as a predictor of physician and patient behavior in medical visits: A synthesis of four studies. Med Care 1996 Dec;34(12):1205-18.
(Primary Care, United States)
OBJECTIVES: Although some patient characteristics are known to be related to physician and patient communication in medical encounters, very little is known about the impact of patients' health status on communication processes. The authors assess relations of patients' physical and emotional health status to verbal and nonverbal communication between physicians and patients in four original studies, and combine results across the four studies using meta-analytic procedures. METHODS: In four original studies of routine outpatient visits (consisting of more than 250 physicians and more than 1,300 patients), health status was measured and audiotape or videotape records were coded for verbal content and nonverbal cues indicating task-related behavior and affective reactions on the part of both the physician and the patient. Both physical and mental health data were obtained, using physicians and/or patients as sources; in two studies, physicians' satisfaction with the visit also was measured. All available background characteristics for both physicians and patients were controlled via partial correlations. The meta-analytic procedures used were the unweighted and weighted (by sample size) average partial correlations, the combined P across studies (Stouffer method), and the test of effect size heterogeneity. RESULTS: Physicians showed signs of negative response to sicker or more emotionally distressed patients, both in their behavior and in their ratings of satisfaction with the visit. Sicker patients also behaved more negatively than healthier patients. However, physicians also engaged in a variety of positive and professionally appropriate behaviors with the sicker or more distressed patients. This mixed pattern of responses is discussed in terms of alternative frameworks: the physician's goals, reciprocation of affect, and ambivalence on the part of the physician. CONCLUSIONS: The patient's health status appears to influence physician-patient communication. In clinical practice, increased attention by physicians to their own and their patients' behavior may enhance diagnosis and prevent misunderstandings.
Hall JA, Roter DL, Rand CS. Communication of affect between patient and physician. J Health Soc Behav 1981 Mar;22(1):18-30.
(Primary Care, United States)
The purpose of this research was to identify patterns of patient-provider communication, in particular combinations of verbal and nonverbal (vocal) expression during the medical visit, that are associated with patient contentment with the visit and appointment-keeping. The data used in the analyses were tape recordings of 50 patient-physician interactions during routine medical visits for chronic disease. The interactions, which were rated by 144 judges, were assessed in three conditions: electronically filtered speech (voice only), original speech (voice and words), and transcripts (words only). Among the affective aspects rated were anger, anxiety, dominance, sympathy, assertiveness, and businesslike manner. Findings indicate that the patient's contentment with the medical visit is related to the ratings of the physician's communication, but that the relationship for the physician's verbal communication is opposite that for the physician's nonverbal communication. When the physician sounds (in filtered speech) more negative--more angry, more anxious, and less as though the patient would return--the patients are more content. But when the physician utters words (judged in transcripts) that are less anxious and more sympathetic, patients are more content. The patient's return for subsequent appointments is also associated with the physician's expression of anger and anxiety in original (unfiltered) speech. Patients who return for appointments express mixed affects in the different conditions--more satisfied and less anxious in words and original speech, but less satisfied in voice tone. Since affect, in this study, appears to be reciprocated, we suggest that negative physican affect expressed in voice tone with positive affect communicated through words is interpreted by patients in an overall positive manner, as probably reflecting perceived seriousness and concern on the part of the physician.
Hampson SE, McKay HG, Glasgow RE. Patient-physician interactions in diabetes management: consistencies and variation in the structure and content of two consultations. Patient Educ Couns 1996 Oct;29(1):49-58.
(Primary Care, United Kingdom)
The structure and content of medical consultations concerning diabetes were examined in two, successive quarterly medical consultations between two physicians and their diabetes patients (N = 44). The consultations were audio-taped and coded for structure (e.g. question asking, information giving) using a modified version of the Roter Interactional Analysis System (inter-coder correlations typically exceeded 0.90 for the composite variables derived from the coding system). The tapes were also coded for content by monitoring the topics discussed (e.g. diet, medication, exercise). The majority of the interactions consisted primarily of information giving and positive talk on the part of both patients and providers. Nutrition-related issued, blood glucose monitoring, medication and exercise were addressed in the majority of interactions, but other regimen areas such as foot care, smoking habits, and alcohol were seldom discussed. There was little stability across the two consultations in terms of either structure (median test-retest correlation = 0.24) or content (majority of test-retest correlations were below 0.30). The importance of studying more than one patient-physician encounter when studying interaction style and content is discussed, as is the need for investigation of interactions between non-physician health care providers and patients with chronic disease.
Hausmann LR, Hanusa BH, Kresevic DM, Zickmund S, Ling BS, Gordon HS, Kwoh CK, Mor MK, Hannon MJ, Cohen PZ, Grant R, Ibrahim SA. Orthopedic communication about osteoarthritis treatment: Does patient race matter? Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011 May;63(5):635-42
(Race/Cross-Culture, United States)
OBJECTIVE: To understand racial disparities in the use of total joint replacement, we examined whether there were racial differences in patient-provider communication about treatment of chronic knee and hip osteoarthritis in a sample of African American and white patients referred to Veterans Affairs orthopedic clinics. METHODS: Audio recorded visits between patients and orthopedic surgeons were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System and the Informed Decision-Making model. Racial differences in communication outcomes were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for study design, patient characteristics, and clustering by provider. RESULTS: The sample (n = 402) included 296 white and 106 African American patients. Most patients were men (95%) and ages 50-64 years (68%). Almost half (41%) reported an income < $20,000. African American patients were younger and reported lower incomes than white patients. Visits with African American patients contained less discussion of biomedical topics (ß = -9.14; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -16.73, -1.54) and more rapport-building statements (ß = 7.84; 95% CI 1.85, 13.82) than visits with white patients. However, no racial differences were observed with regard to length of visit, overall amount of dialogue, discussion of psychosocial issues, patient activation/engagement statements, physician verbal dominance, display of positive affect by patients or providers, or discussion related to informed decision making. CONCLUSION: In this sample, communication between orthopedic surgeons and patients regarding the management of chronic knee and hip osteoarthritis did not, for the most part, vary by patient race. These findings diminish the potential role of communication in Veterans Affairs orthopedic settings as an explanation for well-documented racial disparities in the use of total joint replacement.
Helitzer DL, Lanoue M, Wilson B, de Hernandez BU, Warner T, Roter D. A randomized controlled trial of communication training with primary care providers to improve patient-centeredness and health risk communication. Patient Educ Couns. 2011 Jan;82(1):21-9. Epub 2010 Mar 12.
(Communication Skills Training, Primary Care, United States)
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and effectiveness of training to improve primary care providers' patient-centered communication skills and proficiency in discussing their patients' health risks. METHODS: Twenty-eight primary care providers participated in a baseline simulated patient interaction and were subsequently randomized into intervention and control groups. Intervention providers participated in training focused on patient-centered communication about behavioral risk factors. Immediate efficacy of training was evaluated by comparing the two groups. Over the next 3 years, all providers participated in two more sets of interactions with patients. Longer term effectiveness was assessed using the interaction data collected at 6 and 18 months post-training. RESULTS: The intervention providers significantly improved in patient-centered communication and communication proficiencies immediately post-training and at both follow-up time points. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the brief training produced significant and large differences in the intervention group providers which persisted 2 years after the training. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study suggest that primary care providers can be trained to achieve and maintain gains in patient-centered communication, communication skills and discussion of adverse childhood events as root causes of chronic disease.
Hunfeld JA, Leurs A, De Jong M, Oberstein ML, Tibben A, Wladimiroff JW, Wildschut HI, Passchier J. Prenatal consultation after a fetal anomaly scan: videotaped exploration of physician's attitude and patient's satisfaction. Prenat Diagn. 1999 Nov;19(11):1043-7.
(Prenatal Consultation, Satisfaction and Recall, Netherlands)
The main aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the physician's attitude (using the non-verbal Global Affective Measure of the Roter Analaysis System and the Counselor Rating Form-short version) and the satisfaction of the pregnant women with the prenatal consultation. A secondary aim was to evaluate the women's recall of essential information (i.e. location, severity, prognosis and cause of the anomaly). To this end, 24 prenatal consultations (pregnant women, partners and physicians) were videotaped following a fetal anomaly scan, and a few days later, the pregnant women completed questionnaires to assess their perception of the physician's attitude and their satisfaction with the consultation and the extent to which they could recall the essentials of the information given about the fetal anomaly. In descending order, the physician's dominance/assertiveness (i.e. being self-confident and decisive) (assessment of the videotapes by two psychologists), trustworthiness (women's report) and expertise were significantly positively associated with the women's overall satisfaction, i.e. satisfaction with the information given and affective behaviour on the part of the physician during the prenatal consultation. All the women (n=24) recalled the essentials of the information given about the location of the fetal anomaly. The majority of them correctly reproduced the severity, the prognosis and the cause of the anomaly. Our findings indicate that women in whom a fetal anomaly has been detected derive particular benefit from a self-confident, decisive, expert and trustworthy physician.
Hunfeld JA, Leurs A, De Jong M, Oberstein ML, Tibben A, Wladimiroff JW, Wildschut HI, Passchier J. Prenatal consultation after a fetal anomaly scan: videotaped exploration of physician's attitude and patient's satisfaction. Prenat Diagn 1999 Nov;19(11):1043-7.
(Patient Satisfaction, Netherlands)
The main aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the physician's attitude (using the non-verbal Global Affective Measure of the Roter Analysis System and the Counselor Rating Form-short version) and the satisfaction of the pregnant women with the prenatal consultation. A secondary aim was to evaluate the women's recall of essential information (i.e. location, severity, prognosis and cause of the anomaly). To this end, 24 prenatal consultations (pregnant women, partners and physicians) were videotaped following a fetal anomaly scan, and a few days later, the pregnant women completed questionnaires to assess their perception of the physician's attitude and their satisfaction with the consultation and the extent to which they could recall the essentials of the information given about the fetal anomaly. In descending order, the physician's dominance/assertiveness (i.e. being self-confident and decisive) (assessment of the videotapes by two psychologists), trustworthiness (women's report) and expertise were significantly positively associated with the women's overall satisfaction, i.e. satisfaction with the information given and affective behaviour on the part of the physician during the prenatal consultation. All the women (n=24) recalled the essentials of the information given about the location of the fetal anomaly. The majority of them correctly reproduced the severity, the prognosis and the cause of the anomaly. Our findings indicate that women in whom a fetal anomaly has been detected derive particular benefit from a self-confident, decisive, expert and trustworthy physician.
Hunziker S, Schläpfer M, Langewitz W, Kaufmann G, Nüesch R, Battegay E, Zimmerli LU. Open and hidden agendas of "asymptomatic" patients who request check-up exams. BMC Fam Pract. 2011 Apr 19;12:22.
(Primary Care, Switzerland)
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for a check-up recommend routine screening not triggered by specific symptoms for some known risk factors and diseases in the general population. Patients' perceptions and expectations regarding a check-up exam may differ from these principles. However, quantitative and qualitative data about the discrepancy between patient- and provider expectations for this type of clinic consultation is lacking. METHODS: For a year, we prospectively enrolled 66 patients who explicitly requested a "check-up" at our medical outpatient division. All patients actively denied upon prompting having any symptoms or specific health concerns at the time they made their appointment. All consultations were videotaped and analysed for information about spontaneously mentioned symptoms and reasons for the clinic consultation ("open agendas") and for cues to hidden patient agendas using the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS). RESULTS: All patients initially declared to be asymptomatic but this was ultimately the case in only 7 out of 66 patients. The remaining 59 patients spontaneously mentioned a mean of 4.2 ± 3.3 symptoms during their first consultation. In 23 patients a total of 31 hidden agendas were revealed. The primary categories for hidden agendas were health concerns, psychosocial concerns and the patient's concept of disease. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients requesting a general check-up tend to be motivated by specific symptoms and health concerns and are not "asymptomatic" patients who primarily come for preventive issues. Furthermore, physicians must be alert for possible hidden agendas, as one in three patients have one or more hidden reasons for requesting a check-up.